The recent issue of Mindful magazine (mindful.org) has an interesting discussion about the state of the neuroscientific research relating to mindfulness and meditation. Barry Boyce, the magazine/site's editor-in-chief has a brief discussion of where things are in modern study of the human brain. The article is titled: Your Wild, Wonderful brain. While celebrating the results so far, he cautions that this is all just beginning.
Basically he says that so far the research is very supportive of our mindful meditation practice, but that we need to keep in mind that there is still a Loooong way to go, and that the research is in its infancy. Maybe the techniques we use have a 2600 year history, but only in the last few decades has modern and western science begun to study it. So, I suggest we'll keep on doing what works for us, and keep eyes and ears open for results of research down the road. Full (short) article from Mindful is HERE.